标签:研究

第一篇SCI录用

今天晚上在哄孩子睡觉,基本上搞定了,可以出来的时候,手机振动了下,一看是Gmail的客户端发来了邮件。我的Gmail邮箱邮箱一般就和其他人通讯使用,很少会有联系几条邮件连续发送,除非是论文中了。 果然!是论文的消息,但是里面的...

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如何保持实验中水头的恒定

感觉在实验中会接触到各种各样的仪器,特别在博客中新增加一个分类——器材仪器,主要是关于各种实验中的仪器和注意事项、维护使用等等。

最近一段时间渗透实验,需要一个很定的水头。何为水头?其实是水所具有的能量,包括位置水头、流速水头、压强水头等。我一般渗流实验流速比较缓,基本上流速水头可以忽略不计。

如何给试样维持一个很定的水头,简单的说就是保持该处的水压保持不变。而水在不断地减少,水面不断下降,如何保持呢?

下面是我整理的几种常见的装置。

  • 油压或者气压
    在实验中,一般为保持水头的恒定,都有单片机控制的装置,控制油压或者气压的恒定。通过力的转化,保证试样上的水头差保持恒定。一般均有现成的实验仪器。我现在所用的柔性壁渗透仪,采用的是气压。

渗透1

通入气压,排除液体,通过液体的压力(水头)来控制进气气压的大小,达到稳定的水压。

  • 马利奥特瓶
    上述的仪器都是用电脑芯片控制,以电为能源,可以达到一个较大的水头,但是费用较高,而马利奥特瓶并不需要电能,随着瓶中液面的降低,水头并不减少,一直维持恒定。

马利奥特瓶

在密封的瓶子中插入一个通气的管子,下部排水,C管处的水压是一直减少还是恒定不变,直至水位降到A以下?C的水头是DC的高度还是AC的高度?

真是一个有趣的瓶子,实用方便。

污泥围城现状及解决之道

今天师兄一个微博@了我,并留言我,生意来了。原来是今天的报纸,关于广州的“污泥围城”。

什么是污泥?

在百度百科上,我们得到了如下的解释:

污泥是污水处理后的产物,是一种由有机残片、细菌菌体、无机颗粒、胶体等组成的极其复杂的非均质体。污泥的主要特性是含水率高(可高达99%以上),有机物含量高,容易腐化发臭,并且颗粒较细,比重较小,呈胶状液态。它是介于液体和固体之间的浓稠物,可以用泵运输,但它很难通过沉降进行固液分离。

什么是“污泥围城”?

在各个发达的城市,污泥找不到去处,只能堆积在城市的周围。以广州为例,广州每天的处理量为1000吨左右,但是每天的产生量远远不止这么多,剩下的污泥去哪里了?

有哪些可行的办法?

污泥的处理方法有很多,各种方法有各自不同的特点。现阶段主要的方法有填埋、堆肥、焚烧。

填埋是现阶段普遍使用的方法,填埋的成本低,技术含量不高,可以较为广泛的推广。但是污泥是一种没有任何强度的物质,可以像水一样的流动。所以不能像填埋垃圾一样,堆成一座小山,而只能像水一样,堆填在洼地,最后流成一条河流的状态。如果要正规填埋的话,必须对污泥进行固化,使之有一定的强度,并进行一系列场地的设置。

堆肥是一种比较合理的处理基础,利用堆肥产生的高温杀死污泥中的寄生虫、细菌等微生物,同时将有机质分解成无机盐,堆肥产生的可以作为绿化用土使用。在日本常将污泥与森林中多余树木的木屑一起搅拌堆肥,最后与草籽一起拌合,喷射在路坡上,最后长出草进行护坡。但是里面的重金属污染物到底会不会影响环境,不得而知。

焚烧也是一项非常有前景的方法。通常认为,先将污泥脱水,降低含水率,提高热值。通过混煤燃烧的方法,基本达到热值平衡,发电、污泥减量两不误。上次去某一污水厂采污泥的时候,旁边的小伙子介绍说他们产出的污泥最后都是去燃烧发电的。其实我一点都不信,因为现在焚烧的技术不是非常节能,需要耗费很多能源,因有机质很多,产生的气体容易堵塞锅炉的一些管道,所以在实施上有一定的难度。他们是不愿意进行焚烧的。

现阶段常用什么方法?

现阶段主要还是填埋,好一点的是在处理好场地后将污泥倒入堆场,不好的话找个地方随便填下就可以了。2012年,南京昶华再生资源回收利用有限公司采取将江心洲污水处理厂污泥送至江宁区吉山铁矿的矿坑进行填埋的方式进行违规处理,共计33583.44吨。2013年3月因经常下雨,导致通往吉山铁矿的道路无法行车,3月19日、20日夜间,昶华公司两次将约120吨的污泥倾倒在江宁区风坡茶场附近荒山上,引发群众投诉和媒体报道。这些都是有报道的。

而有些方法就看不见了,将污泥用船拖走,边拖边往江河排放,到了目的地基本上没有了,可以生下很大的一笔的开销费用。

该怎么办?

其实污泥本身就处在一个尴尬的位置。在传统上,一般是“重水轻泥”,注重污水处理,而对于污泥这个污水处理过程的副产品不重视。貌似市住建、环保、城管都对污泥有一定的管理,但是也都有推脱,特别是生活污泥和工业污泥有时候还不在一起。

有一千个问题就一定有一千个方法。方法总比问题多,更加重要的是有人想去管!

岩土SCI期刊汇总

岩土SCI的影响因子一般比较小,ISI认定的最牛的四大刊分别是Geotechnique、 Canadian Geotechnical Journal、ASCE、Soil and Foundation

Geotechnique 土工

影响因子 1.461(2012)
国际著名的有关土力学、岩石力学、工程地质、环境岩土工程的岩土技术期刊。岩土工程界最牛的期刊。
Established in 1948, Géotechnique is the world’s premier geotechnics journal, publishing research of the highest quality on all aspects of geotechnical engineering. Géotechniqueprovides access to rigorously refereed, current, innovative and authoritative research and practical papers, across the fields of soil and rock mechanics, engineering geology and environmental geotechnics.

Canadian Geotechnical Journal 加拿大岩土工程学报

影响因子 0.867(2012)
主编:Dr. Ian Moore, Queen’s University
以刊登有关基础、隧道、水坝、边坡问题精彩文章及相关学科的新技术、新发展而闻名。
Published since 1963, this monthly journal features articles, notes, and discussions related to new developments in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering, and applied sciences. The topics of papers written by researchers and engineers/scientists active in industry include soil and rock mechanics, material properties and fundamental behaviour, site characterization, foundations, excavations, tunnels, dams and embankments, slopes, landslides, geological and rock engineering, ground improvement, hydrogeology and contaminant hydrogeology, geochemistry, waste management, geosynthetics, offshore engineering, ice, frozen ground and northern engineering, risk and reliability applications, and physical and numerical modelling. Contributions that have practical relevance are preferred, including case records. Purely theoretical contributions are not generally published unless they are on a topic of special interest (like unsaturated soil mechanics or cold regions geotechnics) or they have direct practical value.

Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering(ASCE)岩土及环境岩土学报

影响因子 1.156(2012)
美国土木工程师协会(ASCE)主办的杂志之一,以土力学及基础工程方面的内容为主,主题偏向于设计方法、工程应用等。审稿周期较长。
The Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering covers the broad area of practice known as geotechnical engineering. Papers are welcomed on topics such as foundations, retaining structures, soil dynamics, engineering behavior of soil and rock, site characterization, slope stability, dams, rock engineering, earthquake engineering, environmental geotechnics, geosynthetics, computer modeling, groundwater monitoring and restoration, and coastal and geotechnical ocean engineering. Authors are also encouraged to submit papers on new and emerging topics within the general discipline of geotechnical engineering. Theoretical papers are welcomed, but there should be a clear and significant potential for practical application of the theory. Practice-oriented papers and case studies are particularly welcomed and encouraged.

Soil and Foundation 土和地基

影响因子 0.413(2012)
日本地盘工学会主办。日本的岩土工程技术是毋庸置疑的。但是期刊的投稿比较排外。
Soils and Foundations is a bi-monthly journal which specializes on the whole field of geotechnical engineering and related disciplines. This journal publishes research papers, reports of important engineering experiences, state-of-the-art reports on important themes, and discussions. Continuing efforts have been made by the editorial board members to maintain the high quality of the journal by reviewing manuscripts in careful and fair manner. A special attention has been focused therefore on the novelty and readers’ benefit together with practical applicability if necessary. Further, the editorial board is happy to give instructions to authors of manuscripts which could improve their quality. One of the benefits to non-English-speaking authors is that the English in accepted manuscripts is improved by a specialist who is a native and professionally-educated English speaker. Good papers in this journal are entitled to apply for academic awards of the Japanese Geotechnical Society. The publication fee is free up to a specified number of pages. Soils and Foundations is abstracted and indexed in various services including.
上述四个期刊是岩土工程界的最顶级期刊。
还有其他不少顶级期刊,侧重点各不相同。

Computers and Geotechnics

影响因子 1.224(2012)
岩土计算
The role of computer orientated techniques in analysis and design of geotechnical structures has been firmly established in recent years. New techniques are being rapidly developed and applied in the fields of offshore, nuclear, dam, mining and transportation engineering. Using these techniques it is now possible to check the validity of various empirical rules that have become prevalent in geotechnical engineering practice.

Geotechnical Testing Journal

影响因子 0.246(2012)
室内实验
The purpose of the Geotechnical Testing Journalis (1) to provide a high-quality publication that informs the profession of new developments in soil and rock testing and related fields; (2) to provide a forum for the exchange of information, particularly that which leads to the development of new test procedures; and (3) to stimulate active participation of the profession in the work of ASTM International Committee D18 on Soil and Rock and related information.

Geotextiles and Geomembranes

影响因子 2.159(2012)
环境土工
Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect or drain. As the use of geotextile fabrics has expanded there has been the introduction of geotextile composites and the development of products such as geogridsand meshes. Overall these materials are referred to as geotextiles and related products. All have a wide range of applications and are currently used to advantage in many civil engineering applications including roads, airfields, railroads, embankments, retaining structures, reservoirs, canals, dams, bank protection and coastal engineering.

International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences

影响因子 1.2(2012)
岩石
This journal is concerned with original research, new developments, site measurements and case studies in rock mechanics and rock engineering. It provides an international forum for the publication of high quality papers on the subject of rock mechanics and the application of rock mechanics principles and techniques to mining and civil engineering projects built on or in rock masses. These projects include slopes, open-pit mines, quarries, shafts, tunnels, caverns, underground mines, metro systems, dams and hydro-electric stations, geothermal energy, petroleum engineering, and radioactive waste disposal. Papers are welcomed on all relevant topics and especially on theoretical developments, analytical methods, numerical methods, rock testing, site investigation, and case studies.

Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering

影响因子 1.210(2012)
土动力学
The journal aims to encourage and enhance the role of mechanics and other disciplines as they relate to earthquake engineering by providing opportunities for the publication of the work of applied mathematicians, engineers and other applied scientists involved in solving problems closely related to the field of earthquake and geotechnical engineering.

以上资料不少来自网络整理,将影响因子更新到最新。附加英文原文简介。

浙大汇报记

近日参加了"第一届全国岩土多场相互作用及环境土工学术研讨会",将第一次正式出去交流的经过记录下来,留作纪念。

2012/11/23

今天还在忙碌地修改ppt,昨天是感恩节,导师和我们在江宁一起过了"Office Party",有日本料理、法国红酒、中国猪头肉、Pizza等等,东西多,但是没有怎么吃饱。有部分原因是要汇报,因为导师在汇报前对我们的ppt进行下审核。提出了很多的意见,这不现在还在修改。

OfficeParty截图(将人像给删掉了)

明天下午三点的动车,目标:杭州more

2102-11-24

上午课题组听我汇报,纠正我ppt中的缺点。下午动身。

2012-11-25

上午是"973"课题组各小组的汇报。下午是个教授的对自己的研究报告。其实我比较喜欢的是唐春安关于地球变暖和变热的一些思考,提出的地球科学的假设很吸引人,当然,我是外行,不是学地质的,幸好,唐教授也不是学地质的。

明天下午自己要汇报,属于分场的小汇报,有点期待,有点紧张,晚上还要加紧修改ppt,并且自己要在宾馆好好联系下。师兄现在已经睡着了。。。21:52。本来他也要修改的,但是今晚他喝了不少红酒,有点累了,发了两封邮件给他比较感兴趣的汇报人就直接在床边睡着了。。。

我还要多多练习下,感谢boss给这样的机会,刚入门,还很嫩手,先给自己鼓鼓劲

2012-11-26

上午主要是听取专业汇报,我感觉boss关于泥的分类非常好,比

昨天的项目回报有意思多了,毕竟是多年的研究总结。感觉很好。

当然对于我自己而言,对于自己,主要的还是自己研究的汇报。说实话,不紧张是假的。说实话,这两天在浙大都是一两点睡觉的,因为需要修改ppt,里面需要修改的内容实在是太多了,图上点的大小,字体,等等,师兄帮我一一找出来,同时要尽量多的图和尽量少的字,一般字都是自己说出来的。

汇报的时候好紧张,不过现在好多了。但是感觉自己做的东西还是太少了,实验做的比较少,对于研究内容的好多研究点都没有仔细的展开,在这次回去后需要好好思考。

就写到这里,写的比较乱,这两天思维比较乱,现在眼睛还是红的。今天晚上好好休息,明天上午杭州转转。

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